Raman spectroscopy technique is a universal tool to detect and characterize the chemical and physical properties of graphene-based materials. Raman spectroscopy allows getting the information about graphene structures with the aim of fundamental research and for practical device fabrication.
Thus, it is possible to see the first- and second-order modes in intrinsic graphene as well as the shear, layer-breathing, and the G and 2D modes of multilayer graphene using the technology of Raman spectroscopy. Moreover, Raman spectroscopy is considered to be a very fast, nondestructive and universal technique that is ideally suited for the characterization of the lattice structure and the electronic, optical, and phonon properties of graphene materials.
The thing is that the positions, line shapes and intensities of the Raman spectra peaks provide highly useful information for the research of the structures and electronic properties of graphene-based materials. Compared to conventional techniques, Raman spectroscopy offers more information without additional treatments or damage to samples as well as with less cost and time.
The operational principle of Raman technology is based on a three-step process that contains the generation of the photo-excited electron and hole, scattering of the excited electron or hole by the phonon phenomena, and the recombination of the electron and hole.
The Raman spectroscopy of graphene-based materials is highly important because of the graphene’s advantages that include high carrier mobility (near ballistic transport), high thermal conductivity, unique optical and mechanical properties, and high specific surface area. All this makes graphene-based materials highly promising for future applications.
Raman spectroscopy technique offers the following benefits for the large-scale characterization of graphene materials in the industry:
- short measurement time;
- low cost;
- lower training requirements;
- the nondestructive nature.
Also, the Raman technique could be easily used by an engineer with some limited training due to quite simple properties of the Raman spectra in graphene-based materials. Finally, it should be noted that the cost of measurement using the Raman spectroscopy device is reducing with the development of Raman instrumentation.
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