Various instrumentation methods, for instance, inclinometers, tiltmeters, and others allow controlling such processes as landslides and slopes. The thing is that all these technologies have own benefits and drawbacks, however, the optical fiber system offers a crucial superiority over these techniques.
To be more precise, fiber optic technology provides an incessant process to collect the data information during the monitoring process, a significant requirement for such operations and early warning systems. Optical fibers enable researchers to control the slope movement despite the lithology and failure types.
The fiber optic system used to accomplish the purpose includes “a laboratory experimental set-up and an optical fiber containing Optical Time Domain Reflectometer (OTDR), fiber cables and heterocore sensors.” Herewith, the researchers designed a laboratory set-up to simulate a landslide process and to monitor movement.
The optical fiber system has been already tested and demonstrated that fiber optic technology can be applied for a landslide controlling and it is regarded as a highly promising in recording mass movement throughout an optical fiber array. Moreover, optical fibers are considered to evoke risk assessment researches in hazard-prone regions and also at the construction and post-construction period of all other displacement dependent engineering projects, for example, like open road cuts.
It should be noted that landslide is supposed to be one of the most dangerous natural hazards in the world. Thus, early warning systems based on fiber optic technology becomes more and more popular. Optical fiber systems offer such benefits as the ability of easy data transfer, high speed of transmission, lightweight, resistance to environmental impacts, electromagnetic resistance, low cost, and simultaneous monitoring ability.
The thing is that optical fibers have been applied since the 1800 but their application in the early warning systems for the landslide processes is considered to be new. Fiber optic systems are perfect in early warning to collect the data information during the controlling operation.
The operating principle of such monitoring systems is based on the use of propagation of light and OTDR, the tool that transmits light into the optical fiber and collects the backscattered light. The amplitude and the first arrival time of each backscattered light result in the precise location of reflection in the fiber optic system.
Despite the fact that the optical fiber technology has not been employed as an early warning system for real-time monitoring, the system allows detecting any type of mass movement. The thing is that the developed fiber optic system can record the slightest changes within the soil by sensitive sensors controlled by the OTDR. Nowadays the optical fiber system is managed remotely.
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