Optical fibers help in developing quantum computer technology

The scientists from the USA made a range of experiments that included measurement and monitoring of qubit. Unlike the usual experiments with metal electrical wires, they used optical fibers.

According to the characteristics, all the data is transferred to the universal quantum computer that requires about 1 million qubits. In comparison with the usual units that can hardly support thousands of qubits at the most, this leading optical fiber technology gives more opportunities for the creation of quantum computers.

Optical fiber technology is a good alternative to metal wiring because they are capable of carrying high volumes of a signal without producing heat. That’s why optical fiber products are becoming more popular. However, in this case, quantum computers apply microwave pulses for keeping the process data. That’s why the light should be converted precisely to microwaves. And that was one of the main problems for the researchers.

For solving this problem, the research team decided to unite an optical fiber with supplementary components that help to convert the light easily to the microwaves. The optical fiber system supported the quantum states and worked on the same level. Moreover, the USA researchers used an infrared laser as well as an optical fiber in the experiments to define the qubit’s state.
According to physicists, optical fiber solutions allow conveying more information in a much smaller volume in comparison with the ordinary cable with metal wiring.

Usually, microwave pulses are produced in the conditions of room temperature and delivered through metal cables to cryogenically maintained superconducting qubits. The created design headed the light signals using fiber optic cables to cryogenic photodetectors. And the optical fibers turned signals to microwaves and conveyed them to the qubit.

The research team had two variations of the tests with the use of the photonic link for producing microwave pulses. The pulses in optical fiber systems either gauged the quantum state of the qubit or monitored it. These procedures are based on two principles. The first one is called the resonance frequency, which means the frequency of microwaves bouncing. And the second one is the frequency of the qubit states switching that depends on the photons quantity.

Scientists employed a microwave generator in both of the tests. It helped to turn microwaves to optical frequencies of higher levels through the optical fiber. Herewith, these conditions made it possible to guide qubit’s quantum state.

Finally, the research team presented a quantum processor. The infrared laser delivers the signals to the qubits and from them through optical fibers. Herewith, the optical fiber allows transmitting thousands of signals.

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